Handwriting Overview
Article Index
Introduction to method
Additional Reading

Additional reading

Ahola NM. Classification and Frequency of Occurrence of Specific Number Styles. Can Soc. Forensic Sci. J. 2000;33/1:13-22.

Alford EF. Disguised handwriting. J. Forensic Sci. 1970;15:476-488.

Beck J. Handwriting of the alcoholic. Forensic Sci. Int. 1985;28:19-26.

Behrendt JE. Alzheimer's disease and its effect on handwriting. J. Forensic Sci. 1984;29:87-91.

Bellemin-Noel J. Tracking down forgers: An identification technique based on the dynamics of the signing process. Internat. Crim. Police Rev. 1984;39:242-244.

Bertthold NN. Memory simulations, have passport will travel. In: Proceedings of the 49th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Questioned Document Examiners; August 1991; Lake Buena Vista, Forida.

Black, D, Found, B, Rogers, D. The frequency of the occurrence of handwriting performance features used to predict whether questioned signatures are simulated. J Forensic Doc Exam 2003;15:17-28.

Black JA. Simulated signatures - Forgery by imitation. J. Forensic Identif. 1995;45:283-297.

Brault J, Plamondon R. A complexity measure of handwritten curves: Modeling of dynamic signature forgery. IEEE Trans. Sys., Man, and Cyber. 1993;23:400-412.

Brewester F. Contested Documents and Forgeries. Calcutta: The Book Company, 1932.

Burrichter HG. Notes on the technique of reproducing stroke characteristics. Zeltschrift fuer Menschenkunde. 1959/60;23/24:343-347.

Cabanne R. Using models to commit forgery Presented at the 38th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Questioned Document Examiners; August 1980; Vancouver, Canada.

Cole A. Auto forgery. Presented at the 31st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Questioned Document Examiners; August 1973; Silver Springs, Maryland.

Conway JVP. Evidential Documents. Illinois: Charles C Thomas, 1959.

Crane ACJ, Crane SL. A Frequency Study of Cheque Writing Styles. Can Soc Forensic Sci. J. 1997;30/3:113-136.

Dawson GA, Lindblom BS. An evaluation of line quality in photocopied signatures. Presented at the 54th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Questioned Document Examiners; August 1996; Washington, D.C.

Ellen D. The Scientific Examination of Documents: Methods and Techniques. West Sussex: Ellis Horwood Limited, 1989.

Ellen DM. Comparison of simulations made by different writers. Presented at the11th Meeting of IAFS; August 1987; Vancouver, Canada.

Evett I. Towards a uniform framework for reporting opinions in forensic science casework. Science & Justice 1998;38(3):198-202.

Foley RG. The tooth forger. Presented at the 52nd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Questioned Document Examiners; August 1994; Long Beach, California.

Fortenberry SW. The ultimate challenge of simulation. Presented at the 48th Meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences; February 1996; Nashville, Tennessee.

Found B, Rogers D. The initial profiling trial of a program to characterise forensic handwriting examiners’ skill. J American Soc Questioned Doc Exam, 2002, 6, 2,

Found B, Rogers D, Herkt A. Comparison of document examiners’ opinions on original and photocopied signatures . J Forensic Doc Exam 2001;14:1-13.

Found B, Rogers D, Herkt A. The skill of a group of forensic document examiners in expressing handwriting and signature authorship and production process opinions. J Forensic Doc Exam 2001;14:15-30.

Found B, Sita J, Rogers D. The development of a program for characterising forensic handwriting examiners’ expertise: Signature examination pilot study. J Forensic Doc Exam 1999;12:69-80.

Found B. The Forensic Analysis of Behavioural Artefacts: Investigations of Theoretical and Analytical Approaches to Handwriting Identification. Australia: La Trobe University, Victoria, PhD Thesis, November, 1997

Found B, Rogers D, Schmittat R. Recovering dynamic information from static handwriting traces using 'angular differential' software. J. Quest. Doc. Exam. 1997;6:17-38.

Found B, Rogers D. The forensic investigation of signature complexity. In: Simner M, Leedham G, Thomassen A, ed. Handwriting and Drawing Research: Basic and Applied Issues. Amsterdam: IOS Pres, 1996: 483-492.

Found B, Rogers D. Contemporary issues in forensic handwriting examination. A discussion of key issues in the wake of the Starzecpyzel decision. J. Forensic Doc Exam 1995;8:1-31.

Found B, Rogers D, Schmittat R, Metz H. A computer technique for objectively selecting measurement points from handwriting. Presented at the 12th Australian and New Zealand International Symposium of the Forensic Sciences; November 1994; Auckland, New Zealand.

Found B, Dick D, Rogers D. The structure of forensic handwriting and signature comparisons. Forensic Linguis. The Internat. J. Speech, Lang. and Law 1994;1:183-196.

Found B, Metz H, Rogers D, Schmittat R, Black D, Ganas J, Dick D. An analysis of spatial errors in freehand simulations. Presented at the 12th Australian and New Zealand International Symposium of the Forensic Sciences; November 1994; Auckland, New Zealand.

Found B, Rogers D. The effect of pause insertions on motor programs encoding skilled signature formations. Presented at the 11th Australian and New Zealand International Symposium of the Forensic Sciences; August 1992; Hobart, Tasmania.

Found B, Dick D. The structure of handwriting comparisons. An overview of the limitations within the current methodology and a discussion of an alternative method. Presented at the11th Australian and New Zealand International Symposium of the Forensic Sciences; August 1992; Hobart, Tasmania

Found, B, Rogers, D. The relative strength of forensic document examiners’ identification and elimination opinions on individuals’ natural writings. Proceedings of the International Graphonomics Society; June 2005; Salerno, Italy.

Found, B, Rogers, D. Problem types of questioned handwritten text for forensic document examiners. Proceedings of the International Graphonomics Society; June 2005; Salerno, Italy.

Found, B, Rogers, D. Investigating forensic document examiners’ skill relating to opinions on photocopied signatures. Science & Justice, 2005, In press.

Franck FE. Disguised writing: Chronic or acute. J. Forensic Sci. 1988;33:727 - 753.

Franks JE, Davis TR, Totty RN, Hardcastle RA, Grove DM. Variability of stroke direction between left and right handed writers. J. Forensic Sci. Soc. 1985;25:353-370.

F. S. S. D. N. Y. United States v. Starzecpyzel,

Galbraith NG. Alcohol; its effect on handwriting. J. Forensic Sci. 1986;31:580-588.

Haines, K, Phillips, J G, Rogers, D, Found, B. The ability to distinguish handwriting samples on the basis of writers’ age and gender. J Forensic Doc Exam 2001;14:31-51.

Hardy HJJ. Dynamics of the writing movement: Physical modelling and practical applications. J. Forensic Doc Exam. 1992;5:1-34.

Harris JJ. Disguised handwriting. J. Crim. Law, Criminol. and Police Sci. 1953;43:685-689.

Harris, J. How much do people write alike? A study of signatures. J American Soc Questioned Doc Exam, 2002, 5, 2, 91-95.

Harrison WR. Suspect Documents: Their Scientific Examination. New York: Praeger, 1958.

Hecker MR. Subjective elements in the evaluation process of disputed signatures. Presented at the 5th European Conference for Police and Government Handwriting Experts; November 1996; The Hague, The Netherlands.

Herkt A. Signature disguise or signature forgery. J. Forensic Sci. Soc. 1986;26:257-266.

Hilton O. Line quality - Historic and contemporary views. J. Forensic Sci. 1987;32:118 - 120.

Hilton O. Scientific Examination of Questioned Documents. Elsevier New York: Science Publishing Co., Inc., 1982.

Hilton O. Consideration of the writer's health in identifying signatures and detecting forgery. J. Forensic Sci. 1969;14:157-166.

Hilton O. How should one evaluate differences in handwriting. Internationale Kriminalpolizeiliche Revese. 1957;12:48-51.

Hilton, O. Can the forger be identified from his handwriting. J. Crim. Law, Criminol. and Police Sci. 1952;43:547-553.

Horan JJ. The size of forged signatures. Presented at the 53rd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Questioned Document Examiners; September 1995; Chicago, Illinios.

Horton RA. A Study of the Occurrence of Certain Handwriting Characteristics in a Random Population. Internat J Forensic Doc Exam. 1996;2/2:95-102.

Huber RA. The Heterogeneity of Handwriting. J American Soc Questioned Doc Exam. 2000:2-10.

Huber RA, Headrick AM. Handwriting Identification: Facts and Fundamentals. Boca Raton, CRC Press, 1999.

Kao HSR, Shek T L, Lee ESP. Control modes and task complexity in tracing and handwriting performance. Acta Psychol 1983;54:69-77.

Kam M, Gummadidala K, Fielding G, Conn R. Signature authentification by forensic document examiners. J Forensic Sci 2001;46:884-8.

Kam M, Fielding G, Conn R. Writer identification by professional document examiners. J Forensic Sci 1997;42:778-786.

Kam M, Wetstein J, Conn R. Proficiency of professional document examiners in writer identification. J Forensic Sci 1994;39:5-14.

Kapoor JS, Kapoor M, Sharma GP. Study of the form and extent of natural variation in genuine writings with age. J. Forensic Sci. Soc. 1985;25:371-375.

Konstantinidis S. Disguised handwriting. J. Forensic Sci. Soc. 1987;27:383-392.

Kullman, D. Impression by traced forgery. J American Soc Questioned Doc Exam, 2002, 5, 1, 28-38.

Legrun A. An instructive case of handwriting imitation. Zeitschrift fuer Menschenkunde. 1962;25/26:138-141.

Leung SC, Y.S. C, H.T. F, N.L. P. Forgery I - Simulation. J. Forensic Sci. 1993;38:402-412.

Leung SC, Fung HT, Y.S. C, N.L. P. Forgery II - Tracing. J. Forensic Sci. 1993;38:413-424.

Li, C, Poon, N, Fung, W, Yang, C. Individuality of handwritten Arabic numerals in local population. J Forensic Sci, 50, 1, 185-191.

Marquis, R, Schmittbuhl, M, Mazella, w, Taroni, F. Quantification of the shape of handwritten characters: a step to objective discrimination between writers based on the study of the capital character O. Forensic Sci. Int.,2005, 150, 23-32.

Masson JF. An evaluation of simulated and traced signatures and consideration of the potential for determination of the writers identity. Presented at the 48th Meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences; February 1996; Nashville, Tennessee.

Masson J. The effect of fibre tip use on signatures. Forensic Sci. Int. 1992;53:157-162.

Mathyer J. The influence of the writing instrument on handwriting and signatures. J. Crim. Law, Criminol. and Police Sci. 1969;60:102-112.

McAlexander TV. Assigning Weight to Handwriting Differences for Elimination Purposes. Internat J Forensic Doc Exam. 1997;3/1:4-7.

McAlexander TV, Maguire KB. Eliminating ill-founded eliminations in handwriting comparison cases. J. Forensic Sci. Soc. 1991;31:331-336.

McAlexander T. The standardization of handwriting opinion terminology. J. Forensic Sci. 1991;36:311-319.

McAlexander TV. The meaning of handwriting opinions. J Police Sci and Admin 1977;5:43-47.

McClary CR. A study of baseline alignment in signatures and handwritten sentences. Internat. J. Forensic Doc Exam 1997;3:35 - 44.

Metz H, Found B, Dick D, Rogers D. Common forensic handwriting methodology. Presented at the 12th Australian and New Zealand International Symposium of the Forensic Sciences; November 1994; Auckland, New Zealand.

Metz H, Black D. Manipulation of entries on non-original documents. Presented at the 12th Australian and New Zealand International Symposium of the Forensic Sciences; November 1994; Auckland, New Zealand.

Meulenbroek RGJ, van Galen GP. Perceptual-motor complexity of printed and cursive letters. J. Exp. Ed. 1990;58:95-110.

Michel L. Disguised signatures. J. Forensic Sci. Soc. 1978;18:149-154.

Michel L, Conrad, W. Possible ways of differentiation between various kinds of signature forgery. Archiv fuer Kriminologie. 1972;149:31-48.

Muehlberger, RJ. Identifying simulations: Practical considerations. J. Forensic Sci. 1990;35:368-374.

Muehlberger RJ. Simulated forgeries? Not. Presented at the 52nd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Questioned Document Examiners; August 1994; Long Beach, California.

Mohammed, LA. Signature disguise in Trinidad and Tobago. J. Forensic Sci. Soc. 1993;33:21-24.

Moore DS. The importance of shading habits in handwriting identification. J. Forensic Sci. 1983;28:278-281.

Morton SE. A look at newer photocopiers. J. Forensic Sci. 1989;34:461-467.

Osborn AS. Questioned Documents. 2nd ed. Chicago: Nelson-Hall Co., 1929.

Parrett, D, Szabo, G. Lineup: The reliability of examinations involving multiple writers. J American Soc Questioned Doc Exam, 2003, 6, 2, 82-84.

Pfanne H. Two unusual cases of text script imitation. Archiv fuer Kriminologie. 1975;155: 171-179.

Pfefferli PW. Questioned documents. Handwritings - Signatures - Forgeries, Review 1993-1995. Presented at the11th INTERPOL Forensic Science Symposium; November, 1995.

Ramsey Lines, S, Franck, F. Triplet and sibling handwriting study to determine degree of individuality and natural variation. J American Soc Questioned Doc Exam, 2003, 6, 2, 48-55.

Risinger DM, Saks MJ. Science and nonscience in the courts: Daubert meets handwriting identification expertise. Iowa Law Review 1996;82:21-74.

Risinger DM, Denbeaux MP, Saks MJ. Exorcism of ignorance as a proxy for rational knowledge: The lessons of handwriting identification "expertise". Uni. Pennsylv. Law Rev. 1989;137:731-792.

Schneider-Pieters H, ten Camps C, Hardy H. The computer - friend or foe? Presented at the 5th European Conference for Police and Government Handwriting Experts; November 1996; The Hague, The Netherlands.

Schomaker L, van Galen GIE. Computer models of handwriting. In: Dijkstra T, de Smedt KK, ed. Computational psycholinguistics; AI and connectionist models of human language processing. London: Taylor & Francis, 1996: 386-420.

Seaman Kelly, J. Habits observed in naturally written numbers. J American Soc Questioned Doc Exam, 2002, 5, 2, 58-66.

Shimoda J. Can simulated forgeries be identified. Presented at the 26th Meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences; February 1974; Dallas, Texas.

Simner ML. The origin of class characteristics: an empirical investigation of a major principle in forensic document examination. J Forensic Doc Exam. 1998;11:39-50.

Singh A. Influence of the primary language in simple forgeries. J. Forensic Sci. Soc. 1994;34:83-87.

Sita J, Found B, Rogers D. Forensic handwriting examiners' expertise for signature comparison, J Forensic Sci 2002;47:5:1117-1124.

Sjerps MJ, Massier REF, Wagenaar WA. Expressing expert opinion using a verbal probability scale. Presented at the 5th European Conference for Police and Government Handwriting Experts; November 1996; The Hague, The Netherlands.

Smith GD. Simulations and foreign handwriting influence - A case review. Presented at the 51st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Questioned Document Examiners; September 1993; Ottawa, Ontario.

Srihari SN, Cha SH, Arora H, Lee S. Individuality of Handwriting. J Foensic Sci. 2002;47/4:856-872.

Tappolet JA, Ottinger E. Transfer of signatures with transparent pressure tape: Some experiments. Forensic Sci. Int. 1982;20:61-71.

Thomassen, AJW, van Galen GP. Temporal features of handwriting: challenges for forensic analysis. J. Forensic Doc Exam. 1997;10:85-108.

Totty RN, Hardcastle RA, Steele J. Can Genuine Signatures Ever Be Exactly Alike?. Internat J Forensic Doc Exam. 1996;2/2:146-150.

Tsui DCK. Disguised Chinese Handwriting By Chinese-Canadian Writers. Can Soc. Forensic Sci. J. 1997;30/3:137-150.

Ueda, K, Matsuo, K. Experimental analysis of variation and individuality of Japanses handwriting. Proceedings of the International Graphonomics Society; June 2005; Salerno, Italy.

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van der Platts RE, van Galen GP. Effects of spatial and motor demands in handwriting. J. Motor Behav. 1990;22:361-385.

van Galen GP. Handwriting and drawing: A two stage model of complex motor behavior In: Stelmach GE, Requin J, ed. Tutorials in Motor Behavior. Amsterdam: North Holland, 1980: 567-578.

van Galen GP. Structural complexity of motor patterns: A study on reaction times and movement times of handwritten letters. Psych. Res. 1984;46:49-57.

van Gemert AWA, van Galen, GP. Dynamic features of mimicking another persons writing and signature In: Simner ML, Leedham CG, Thomassen AJWM, ed. Handwriting and drawing research: Basic and applied issues. Amsterdam: IOS Press, 1996:459 - 471.

van Gemmert WA, van Galen GP, Hardy HJJ, Thomassen AJW. Dynamical features of disguised handwriting. Presented at the 5th European Conference for Police and Government Handwriting Experts; November 1996;The Hague, The Netherlands.

Vastrick TW. Computerised handwriting. Presented at the 52nd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Questioned Document Examiners; August 1994; Long Beach California.

Vastrick TW. Illusions of tracing. J. Forensic Sci. 1982;27:186-191.

Webb FE. The question of disguise in handwriting. J. Forensic Sci. 1977;23:149-154.

Wendt GW. Statistical Observations of Disguised Signatures. J. American Soc. Questioned Doc Exam. 2000:19-27.

Wing AM. Response timing in handwriting. In: Stelmach GE, ed. Information processing in motor control and learning. New York: Academic Press, 1978:153-172.