Publications by Dr Found

Dr Found is a leading researcher and author on forensic signature and handwriting comparison. The following is a list of articles in print and references to conference presentations.

Refereed Journal Articles, Full Conference Papers and Book Chapters

Mohammed, L., Found, B., Caligiuri, M, Rogers, D. Can Dynamic Features Be Used To Discriminate Between Genuine, Auto-Simulated, and Simulated Signatues?- Journal of Forensic Sciences, in press

Bird, C; Found, B; Ballantyne, K; Rogers, D. Forensic handwriting examiners' opinions on the process of production of disguised and simulated signatures, Forensic Science International 195 (2010) 103-107

Bird, C; Found, B; Rogers, D. Forensic Handwriting Examiners' Skill in Distinguishing Between Natural and Disguised Handwriting Behaviours, Journal of Forensic Sciences, (Accepted Aug 2009).

The Forensic Examination of Handwritten Text and Signatures, Wiley Encyclopaedia of Forensic Science (2009) Allan Jamieson (Editor), Andre Moenssens (Co-Editor).

Dewhurst, T., Found, B. & Rogers, D. (2008). Are expert penmen better than lay people at producing simulations of a model signature? Forensic Science International, 180, 50-53.

Dyer, A.G., Found, B. & Rogers, D. (2008). An insight into forensic document examiner expertise for discriminating between forged and disguised signatures. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 53 (5), 1154-1159.

Found, B. & Rogers, D. (2008). The probative character of forensic handwriting examiners' identification and elimination opinions on questioned signatures. Forensic Science International, 178(1): 54-60.

Mohammed, L., Found, B. & Rogers, D. (2008). Frequency of signatures styles in San Diego County. Journal of the American Society of Questioned Document Examiners, 11 (1), 9-13.

Dewhurst, T., Found, B. & Rogers, D. (2007). The relationship between quantitatively modelled signature complexity levels and forensic document examiners' qualitative opinions on casework. Journal of Forensic Document Examination, 18, 21-40.

Bird, C., Found, B. & Rogers, D. (2007). Forensic document examiners' opinions on process of production of disguised and simulated signatures. Proceedings of the 13th Biennial Conference of the International Graphonomics Society, 171-174.

Dewhurst, T., Found, B. & Rogers, D. (2007). Are expert penmen better than lay people in producing simulations capable of avoiding detection by forensic document examiners? Proceedings of the 13th Biennial Conference of the International Graphonomics Society, 158-161.

Found, B. & Rogers, D. (2007). The probative character of forensic document examiners' identification and elimination opinions on questioned signatures. Proceedings of the 13th Biennial Conference of the International Graphonomics Society, 175-178.

Found, B. & Rogers, D. (2005). The relative strength of forensic document examiners' identification and elimination opinions on individuals' natural writings. Proceedings of the 12th Biennial Conference of the International Graphonomics Society, 157-161.

Found, B. & Rogers, D. (2005). Problem types of questioned handwritten text for forensic document examiners. Proceedings of the 12th Biennial Conference of the International Graphonomics Society, 8-12.

Dyer, A.G., Found, B. & Rogers, D. (2006). Visual attention and expertise for forensic signature analysis. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 51 (6), 1397-1404.

Found, B. & Rogers, D.K. (2005). Investigating forensic document examiners’ skill relating to opinions on photocopied signatures. Science & Justice, 45 (4), 199-206.

Found, B. & Rogers, D. (2005). The relative strength of forensic document examiners’ identification and elimination opinions on individuals' natural writings. Proceedings of the 12th Biennial Conference of the International Graphonomics Society, 157-161.

Found, B. & Rogers, D. (2005). Problem types of questioned handwritten text for forensic document examiners. Proceedings of the 12th Biennial Conference of the International Graphonomics Society, 8-12.

Found, B. & Rogers, D. (2003). The initial profiling trial of a program to characterise forensic handwriting examiners’ skill. Journal of the American Society of Questioned Document Examiners, 6, 72-81.

Dyer, A.G., Found, B. & Rogers, D. (Submitted). An insight into forensic document examiner expertise for discriminating between forged and disguised signatures. Journal of Forensic Sciences.

Dyer, A.G., Found, B. & Rogers, D. (2006). Visual attention and expertise for forensic signature analysis. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 51 (6), 1397-1404.

Sita, J., Found, B. & Rogers, D. (2002). Forensic handwriting examiners’ expertise for signature comparison. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 47, 1117-1124.

Found, B., Rogers, D., & Herkt, A. (2001). Comparison of document examiners’ opinions on original and photocopied signatures. Journal of Forensic Document Examination, 14, 1-13.

Found, B., Rogers, D., & Herkt, A. (2001). The skill of a group of forensic document examiners in expressing handwriting and signature authorship and production process opinions. Journal of Forensic Document Examination, 14, 15-30.

Found, B., Sita, J. & Rogers, D. (1999). The development of a program for characterising forensic handwriting examiners’ expertise: Signature examination pilot study. Journal of Forensic Document Examination, 12, 69-80.

Sita, J., Found, B. & Rogers, D. (2004). A model using quantitative data for forensic signature identification. Journal of Forensic Document Examination, 16, 91-101.

Sita, J., Found, B. & Rogers, D. (2004). A quantitative analysis of the spatial properties of questioned signatures and the relationship to forensic document examiners’ opinions. Journal of Forensic Document Examination, 16, 77-89.

Black, D., Found, B. & Rogers, D. (2003). The frequency of the occurrence of handwriting performance features used to predict whether questioned signatures are simulated. Journal of Forensic Document Examination, 15, 17-28.

Sita, J.C., Rogers, D. & Found, B. (2003). A model using complexity classification, spatial score and line quality for forensic signature comparison. Proceedings of the 11th Biennial Conference of the International Graphonomics Society, 257-260.

Sita, J.C., Rogers, D. & Found, B. (2003). Spatial comparison of questioned to specimen signatures using matrix analysis software. Proceedings of the 11th Biennial Conference of the International Graphonomics Society, 299-303.

Haines, K., Phillips, J.G., Rogers, D. & Found, B. (2001). The ability to distinguish handwriting samples on the basis of writers’ age and gender. Journal of Forensic Document Examination, 14, 31-51.

Dick, D., Found, B. & Rogers, D. (2000). The forensic detection of deceptive behavior using handwriting movements. Journal of Forensic Document Examination, 13, 15-24

Found, B. & Rogers, D. (1999). Documentation of forensic handwriting comparison and identification method: A modular approach. Journal of Forensic Document Examination , 12, 1 - 68.

Found, B. Rogers, D., & Metz, H. (1999). The objective static analysis of spatial errors in simulations. Journal of Forensic Document Examination, 12, 81- 99.

Found, B., Sita, J. & Rogers, D. (1999). Forensic handwriting examiners’ expertise: Signature examinations. Proceedings of the Ninth Biennial Conference of the International Graphonomics Society, 209-212.

Found, B. & Rogers, D. (1998). A consideration of the theoretical basis of forensic handwriting examination: The application of “Complexity Theory” to understanding the basis of handwriting identification. International Journal of Forensic Document Examiners, 4, 109 - 118.

Found, B., Rogers, D., Rowe, V. & Dick, D. (1998). Statistical modelling of experts’ perceptions of the ease of signature simulation. Journal of Forensic Document Examination, 11, 75 - 102.

Found, B., Rogers, D. & Schmittat, R. (1998). ‘Matrix Analysis’: A technique to investigate the spatial properties of handwritten images. Journal of Forensic Document Examination, 11, 54 - 74.

Found, B. Rogers, D. & Schmittat, R. (1997). Recovering dynamic information from static handwriting traces using angular differential software. Journal of Questioned Document Examination, 6, 17-38.

Found, B. & Rogers, D (1996). The forensic investigation of signature complexity. In M. Simner, G. Leedham & A. Thomassen (Eds.), Handwriting and Drawing Research: Basic and Applied issues, (pp. 483 - 492). Amsterdam: IOS Press.

Rogers, D. & Found, B. (1996). The objective measurement of spatial invariance in handwriting. In M. Simner, G. Leedham & A. Thomassen (Eds.), Handwriting and Drawing Research: Basic and Applied issues, (pp. 3 - 13). Amsterdam: IOS Press.

Found, B. & Rogers, D. (1995). Contemporary issues in forensic handwriting examination. A discussion of key issues in the wake of the Starzecpyzel decision. Journal of Forensic Document Examination, 8, 1-31.

Found, B., Dick, D. & Rogers, D.K. (1994). The structure of forensic handwriting and signature comparisons. Forensic Linguistics: International Journal of Speech Language and the Law, 1, 183 - 196.

Found, B., Rogers, D. & Schmittat, R. (1994). A computer program designed to compare the spatial elements of handwriting. Forensic Science International, 68, 195-203.


Conference Abstracts

Jones, L. & Found, B. Forensic Handwriting Examiners' skill in associating digitally altered non-original signatures. Presented at the 20th International Symposium on the Forensic Sciences, Sydney, 2010.

Bird, C., Found, B., Rogers, R. Forensic Handwriting Examiners' skill in detecting disguise and simulation behaviour from handwritten text samples. Presented at the 20th International Symposium on the Forensic Sciences, Sydney, 2010.

Dewhurst, T., Found, B., Rogers, D. Can a financial reward/penalty system alter lay-persons' success rates on a forensic signature examination task? Presented at the 20th International Symposium on the Forensic Sciences, Sydney, 2010.

Found, B. & Rogers, D. The skill of writers at determining the authenticity of their own signature. Presented at the 20th International Symposium on the Forensic Sciences, Sydney, 2010.

Jarvis, M. & Found, B. The influence of the use of a quill pen on a scribe's ability to accurately copy a music manuscript. Presented at the 20th International Symposium on the Forensic Sciences, Sydney, 2010.

Mohammed, L., Found, B., Caligiuri, M, Rogers, D. Can Dynamic Features Be Used To Discriminate Between Genuine, Auto-Simulated, and Simulated Signatures? Presented at the 61st Annual Conference of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, Denver, CO 2009

Mohammed, L., Found, B., Caligiuri, M., Rogers, D. Pen Pressure as a Discriminating Feature between Genuine and Forged Signatures. Presented at the International Graphonomics Society Conference, Dijon, France, September 2009

Bird, C; Found, B; Rogers, D (2009). Forensic Handwriting Examiners' Skill in Detecting Disguise Behaviour from Handwritten Text Samples, Presented at the Conference of the European Network of Forensic Handwriting Experts, Cracow, Poland.

Mohammed, L., Found, B., Caligiuri, M. and Rogers, D. Can Dynamic Features Be Used To Discriminate Between Genuine, Auto-Simulated, and Simulated Signatures? Presented at the 61st Annual Conference of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, Denver, CO 2009

Bird, C; Found, B; Rogers, D (2008). Investigating the skill of Forensic Handwriting Examiners for determining text-based natural and disguised handwriting processes, Presented at the 19th International Symposium on the Forensic Sciences, Melbourne.

Mohammed, L., Found, B., Rogers, D. Genuine and Disguised Signatures - An Empirical Approach Presented at the 60th Annual Conference of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, Washington, DC 2008

Bird, C; Found, B; Rogers, D (2007). Forensic Document Examiners' Opinions on the Process of Production of Disguised and Simulated Signatures, Proceedings of the 13th Conference of the International Graphonomics Society, Melbourne, 171 - 174.

Dyer, A.G., Found, B., Sita, J. & Rogers, D. (2006). Eye movement evaluation of signature forgeries. In Proceedings of the Australasian Ophthalmic and Visual Sciences Meeting, December 2-4 John Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University.

Rogers, D., Dyer, A.G., & Found, B. (2006). Eye movements and forensic handwriting analysis expertise. Proceedings of the 4th European Academy of Forensic Science, p.102.

Dick, D., Lacy, K., Found, B. & Rogers, D. (2004). Handwriting speed: Experimental validation trial. Proceedings of the 17th Australian and New Zealand Forensic Science Society International Symposium on the Forensic Sciences, Wellington, New Zealand, 28 March-2 April, 2004.

Phillips, J.G., Rogers, D. & Found, B. (2004). Expertise of forensic document examiners: A signal detection analysis. 31st Australasian Experimental Psychology Conference, Dunedin, Australian Journal of Psychology, 56, p.132.

Found, B. & Rogers, D. (2003). Characterising handwriting identification skill by assessing the probative value of grouped examiner opinions across handwriting types. European Academy of Forensic Science, Triennial Meeting, Istanbul, Turkey, 22-27 September, 2003.

Found, B. & Rogers, D. (2003). The impact of forger practice on the validity of forensic document practitioners’ opinions. European Academy of Forensic Science, Triennial Meeting, Istanbul, Turkey, 22-27 September, 2003.

Found, B. & Rogers, D. (2002). The impact of forger practice on the validity of forensic document practitioners’ opinions. Proceedings of the 16th Australian and New Zealand Forensic Science Society International Symposium on the Forensic Sciences, Canberra, 12-17 May.

Found, B. & Rogers, D. (2000). Investigating proposed theoretical complexity relationships in forensic handwriting identification using specialists behaviour. Proceedings of the CrimTrac15th International Symposium on the Forensic Sciences, Gold Coast, Queensland, 5-10 March, 2000, pp. 143-144.

Sita, J., Found, B. & Rogers, D. (2000). Validating forensic handwriting examiners’ expertise: Signature examinations. Proceedings of the CrimTrac15th International Symposium on the Forensic Sciences, Gold Coast, Queensland, 5-10 March, 2000, p. 116-117.

Rogers D., Found B., Joseph S., Ganas, J. & Sharfe G. (2003). An objective comparison of spatial characteristics between forged and genuine signatures using Matrix Analysis software. European Academy of Forensic Science, Triennial Meeting, Istanbul, Turkey 22-27 September, 2003.

Found, B., Rogers, D., Rowe, V. & Dick, D. (1998). Statistical modelling of experts’ perceptions of the ease of signature simulation. Proceedings of the 14th International Symposium on the Forensic Sciences, Adelaide, 12-16 October, 1998.

Found, B. & Rogers, D. (1996). Matrix analysis of the spatial properties of handwritten images. Proceedings of the 13th Australian and New Zealand Forensic Science Society International Symposium on the Forensic Sciences, Sydney 9 -13 September.

Found, B. & Rogers, D. (1996). Complexity theory as a rationale for forensic handwriting opinion. Fifth European Conference for Police and Government Handwriting Experts, The Hague, Netherlands, 13-15 November.

Found, B. & Rogers, D. (1995). Investigation of signature complexity for forensic purposes. Proceedings of the Seventh Biennial Conference of the International Graphonomics Society, 52-53.

Found, B., Rogers, D. & Schmittat, R. (1995). Techniques for overcoming difficulties taking objective spatial measurements from handwriting. Proceedings of the Seventh Biennial Conference of the International Graphonomics Society, 54-55.

Rogers, D. & Found, B. (1995). The objective measurement of spatial invariance in handwriting. Proceedings of the Seventh Biennial Conference of the International Graphonomics Society, 132-133.

Found, B., Rogers, D.K., Schmittat, R. & Metz, H. (1994). A computer technique for objectively selecting measurement points from handwriting. Proceedings of the 12th Australian and New Zealand Forensic Science Society International Symposium on the Forensic Sciences, Auckland, New Zealand, 21-25 November

Metz, H., Found, B., Rogers, D.K., & Dick, D. (1994). Common methodology. Proceedings of the 12th Australian and New Zealand Forensic Science Society International Symposium on the Forensic Sciences, Auckland, New Zealand, 21-25 November.

Found, B., Metz, H., Rogers, D.K., Schmittat, R., Black, D., Ganas, J. & Dick, D. (1994). An analysis of spatial errors in freehand simulations. Proceedings of the 12th Australian and New Zealand Forensic Science Society International Symposium on the Forensic Sciences, Auckland, New Zealand, 21-25 November.

Found, B., Dick, D. &. Rogers (1992). Signature formations: The artifacts of human movement. The 11th Australian and New Zealand International Symposium on the Forensic Sciences. Hobart 17-21.

Found, B., Rogers, D. & Schmittat, R. (1992). A report on the development of a computer based analysis technique for the study of handwriting. Proceedings of the 11th Australian and New Zealand International Symposium on the Forensic Sciences, Hobart, 17-21 August.

Found, B., Rogers, D.K. & Schmittat, R. (1992). The effect of controlled pause insertions on motor programmes encoding skilled signature formations. Proceedings of the 11th Australian and New Zealand International Symposium on the Forensic Sciences, Hobart, 17-21 August.

Rogers, D., Found, B. & Morris, M. (1992). The accessing and utilisation of stored motor programmes for handwriting following stroke. Proceedings of the Australian Physiological and Pharmacological Society, 23, 230.


Books and the media

References to Dr Found’s work can be found on the internet and also appear in books including:

Huber, R. & Headrick, A. (1999). Handwriting Identification: Facts and Fundamentals, CRC Press, New York.

MODERN SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE: THE LAW AND SCIENCE OF EXPERT TESTIMONY By: David L. Faigman, David H. Kaye, Michael J. Saks & Joseph Sanders.

A chapter dedicated to Dr Found’s casework can be found in the book ‘Written on the skin’ by Liz Porter (MacMillan Australia, 2006).

Dr Found has been interviewed on numerous occasions both in radio and print media.


Development of method

Since 1992 Dr Found and his colleagues have been involved in the development of behavioural theory and documented method for forensic handwriting examinations. This has culminated in the joint development and publication, of the first commonly subscribed to method in Australasian document examination history (Found, B. & Rogers, D. (Eds.), (1999). Documentation of forensic handwriting comparison and identification method: A modular approach. Journal of Forensic Document Examination, Volume 12, Fall). This methodology has been presented to the Scientific Working Group on document examination in the USA, and the European Network of Forensic Handwriting Experts (Europe).